middle colonies population

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New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624. Society/Culture Delaware was at first an all white colony, however in years that came, delaware took on slaves, but in a small number. It also encouraged the rapid growth of Philadelphia into America’s most important city, and of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country hinterlands, where German religions and political refugees prospered on the fertile soil and spirit of cultural creativeness. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664–1667), English forces gained control of the Dutch fur trading colony of New Netherland, and in 1664, Charles II gave this colony (including present-day New Jersey) to his brother James, Duke of York (later James II). In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written to entice settlers to New Jersey. This led to significantly better relations with the local tribes such as the Lenape and Susquehanna than most other colonies had. The political division existed from 1674 to 1702. It encompassed parts of the later states of New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland in western Germany. Jack E. Maxfield, America: A.D. 1601 to 1700. D: The population in the middle colonies was more diverse. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed only sporadically. William Penn and his fellow Quakers imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government; the Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists, and the government was initially open to all Christians. Quakers initially interacted respectfully with the Lenape and Susquehanna; however, future quests for land by the British government led to violence and hostility. The Mason-Dixon line is said to have legally resolved vague outlines between Maryland and Pennsylvania and awarded Delaware to Pennsylvania. In New York’s Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch poltroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730, colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. Increasing encroachment by European settlers led to the early stages of violent conflict. The populations of four Colonies—Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina and New York—do not include certain territorial claims that became separate states after the Revolution. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority British population as well, with 7–11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% African population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe and a high degree of religious tolerance. Middle Colonies: The Middle Colonies was comprised of Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. As a consequence, early settlements of Germans from many different sects concentrated in the Middle Colonies. They later on renamed the colony the Dutch had settled in New York. The original report on the 1790 census listed the country’s population as 3,929,326, but math errors showed 114 more people in Vermont than the correct count and two fewer people in Delaware than the correct count. Between 1669 and 1672, Delaware was an incorporated county under the Province of Maryland. The colonies all had similar constitutions, legal systems, and political systems in place. In 1701, it gained a separate assembly from the three upper counties but continued to have the same governor as the rest of Pennsylvania. The two proprietors of New Jersey attempted to augment their colony’s population by granting sections of lands to settlers and by passing a document granting religious freedom to all inhabitants of New Jersey. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. In 1664 Colonel Richard Nicolls lead a fleet of English ships into the port of New Jersey, where Fort Amsterdam was, the English fleet took control of the fort and its surrounding area, giving the control of these lands to the country of England. The Middle Colonies were a part of the former Thirteen Colonies of the 18th century. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. People moved to the Middle Colonies from New England to escape religious persecution. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scottish Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. The Irish came to the early colonies because of potato famine. The Dutch West India Company had introduced slavery in 1625. Land grants made in connection to the importation of slaves were another enticement for settlers. Charles II of England set his sights on the Dutch colony of New Netherland. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. George Fox had founded the Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers) in England in the late 1640s, having grown dissatisfied with Puritanism and the idea of predestination. The Dutch colony of New Netherland was taken by the British in the 17th century and later became the colonies of New York and New Jersey. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. When the colony fell to the British, the Company freed all of its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free Africans in the Northeast. Examine the religious and social factors that shaped the establishment of the Pennsylvania and Delaware colony. Among the first settlers were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683, and the Amish, who established the Northkill Amish Settlement in 1740. The Middle Colonies and New England were different in that New England was largely Puritan, and, save for Rhode Island (which practiced a form of … Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. The colony’s land was periodically granted to various proprietors and split into the Province of New York and the Province of Pennsylvania. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres (16–65 hectares), owned by the family that worked it. estimated population of american colonies: 1610 to 1780 : pp. (1point) Leaders of the Middle Colonies advertised in Europe to attract more settlers. These tribes included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and Tappan. William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America in 1681 by royal charter. In 1702, Queen Anne united West and East Jersey into one Royal Colony—the Province of New Jersey. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal, rather than a proprietary, governor. The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. Other important industries included printing, publishing, and the related industry of papermaking. The Dutch soon claimed the land, and although the Swedes and the Dutch fought over the land in the 1630s, the Dutch ultimately claimed the land as New Netherland. The colonies grew both geographically and numerically from the time of their founding to the American Revolution (1775–81). Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. William Penn founded the Pennsylvania Colony in 1681 and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. King James II granted the land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two friends and named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. New Netherland was the territory on the eastern coast of North America established by Henry Hudson in 1609. The English continued the Dutch patroonship system, granting large estates to a favored few families. The population of the American Colonies, until the end of the 17th century, was almost entirely English. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. Chartered in 1614, New Amsterdam was a colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Colonies in Northern America. The Charter of Privileges mandated fair dealings with American Indians. What was the land like in the New England colony during the 1600-1700? In New York’s Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch established the patroon system, which resembled a feudal aristocracy governing vast land grants. Until the French and Indian War, Pennsylvania had no militia, few taxes, and no public debt. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania. Their speech reflected this belief in that they addressed all others as equals, using “thee” and “thou” rather than terms like “your lordship” or “my lady” that were customary for privileged individuals of the hereditary elite. Its large exports led to its constituent colonies becoming known as the Bread Basket Colonies. Under his guidance, Philadelphia became a fabulous city, with broad, tree-shaded streets, stone and brick houses, and a bustling port. The most populous of the Middle colonies was Pennsylvania, other colonies were settled rather haphazardly over the course of … Middle Colonies and the Western Frontier Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. Abundant forests attracted the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. American colonies, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in the area that is now a part of the eastern United States. After decades of war in the 1600s, the powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois, composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca, successfully pursued a policy of neutrality with both the English and, to the north, the French in Canada during the first half of the 1700s. The Middle Colonies flourished economically due to fertile soil, broad navigable rivers, and abundant forests. The Dutch, through their trade of manufactured goods with the Iroquois and Algonquians, presumed they had exclusive rights to farming, hunting, and fishing in the region. A lot of the success of Pennsylvania and Delaware is owed to William Penn. 1) Why did the Middle colonies have the most diverse population in colonial America? James II later granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War. The American Indians, while willing to share the land with the Europeans, did not expect or intend to leave or give up access, however. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though few such servants worked in agriculture. Penn had a hard time governing Delaware because the economy and geology were largely the same as that of the Chesapeake, rather than that of his Pennsylvania territory. Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, the Carolinas and Georgia were all founded by Englishmen, settled by people of English descent and remained under English control throughout the colonial period. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Middle Colonies later became the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow: History Matters! The largest of these estates, at 160,000 acres, was given to Robert Livingston in 1686. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England’s 120,000 and the Southern Colonies’ 77,000. By 1685 its population was almost 9,000. European colonization of New Jersey started soon after the 1609 exploration of its coast and bays by Henry Hudson. These immigrants traveled to all of the colonies, but the Middle Colonies attracted the most and continued to be more ethnically diverse than the other colonies. The Munsee inhabited the Hudson Valley highlands and northern New Jersey, while Minquas (called the Susquehannocks by the English) lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River, which the Dutch regarded as their boundary with Virginia. Henry Hudson explored the Middle Colonies on a journey into the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1609. By 1750, the combined populations of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania had reached nearly 300,000 people after an influx of German, Swiss, and Irish immigrants. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania, which called for religious tolerance towards many, including local American Indians and the Religious Society of Friends. The assembly’s 1683 Charter of Liberties and Privileges set out the traditional rights of Englishmen, like the right to trial by jury and the right to representative government. In 1776, Great Britain's population was roughly three times the size of the Colonies. Located in the middle of the Atlantic seaboard, their economies combined the industry of the North with the agriculture of the South. 1168 : hs/us vol.2 : colony: 1780: 1770: 1760: 1750 Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. Because of various colonial masters in the area, religious traditions from many European countries existed in the area. Admitted to the Dutch Reformed Church and married by its ministers, their children could be baptized. In 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674), the Dutch recaptured the colony; however, at the end of the conflict, the English had regained control. The Dutch in New York chafed under English rule. Indentured servitude was especially common in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. Population in 1700: Estimated population in the Colonies as of the year 1700. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies. The Lenape and Susquehanna occupied the land prior to colonization. They gained the name Quakers because they were said to quake when the inner light moved them. In 1738, King George II appointed a separate governor for New Jersey. A: Most people in the middle colonies were Puritan. Compare the culture of the Middle Colonies with that of other English colonies. … The Quakers also refused to provide any assistance to New England’s Indian wars. The “Holy Experiment” was an attempt by the Religious Society of Friends to establish a community in Pennsylvania. When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York and dubbed it “The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River.” In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow it a separate colonial assembly. The English takeover of New Netherland originated in the imperial rivalry between the Dutch and the English. Manhattan flourished under the Dutch. CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/indentured_servant, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_colonies, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New%20England%20Confederation, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Middle_Colonies_USA.svg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_history_of_the_United_States%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/US_History/English_Colonies%23New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Netherland, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second%20Anglo-Dutch%20War, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty%20of%20Westminster, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manatvs_gelegen_op_de_Noot_Riuier.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaware_Colony, http://cnx.org/contents/p7ovuIkl@3.30:ZC7sZcO-@3/Charles-II-and-the-Restoration, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Province_of_Pennsylvania, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William%20Penn, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower%20Counties, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Birth_of_Pennsylvania_1680_cph.3g07157.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Colonies%23Demographics, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Dutch, http://books.google.com/books?id=GFNJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA170&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U24DCz_974ZR0MnJwEWZaA2zaSTKg&ci=120,404,747,248&edge=0. Broad navigable rivers like the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and the Hudson attracted diverse business, and New York and Philadelphia became important ports. After Charles II came to the throne, the English became very interested in the Dutch holdings. From 1682 until 1776, it was part of the Penn proprietorship and was known as the Lower Counties. Unlike in the New England Colonies, many different religious groups lived in the Middle colonies. The Quakers had previously treated American Indians with respect, bought land from them voluntarily, and even had representation of American Indians on juries. William Penn had asked for and later received the lands of Delaware from the Duke of York. It wasn’t until 1683, almost 20 years after the English took control of the colony, that colonists were able to convene a local representative legislature. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. When a powerful English military unit appeared in New Amsterdam, Governor Stuyvesant was forced to surrender and New Netherland became New York. Families generally held and worked plots of between 40 and 160 acres. Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. As the colonies were established throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the population grew immensely, starting at just 2,000 people and rising to over 2 million. The 1610-1780 numbers, except for 1776, are estimates from the “Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970,” issued by the Census Bureau, which cites as its main sources archival research and the statistical work of various scholars. In the end, the Penns gained 1,200,000 acres of land in what is now northeastern Pennsylvania, an area roughly equivalent to the size of the state of Rhode Island. When the colony fell, the company freed all its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free blacks. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. Peter led the colony beginning in 1647. A small proportion of the English population migrated to British North America after 1700, but the colonies attracted new immigrants from other European countries. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England’s 120,000 and the Southern Colonies’ 77,000. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites. As they did in other zones of colonization, indigenous peoples played a key role in shaping the history of colonial New York. They consisted of the future states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and sometimes Maryland.Today these areas are described as the Mid-Atlantic States.The middle colonies were the most ethnically and religously diverse of the 13 original colonies because they were also the most tolerant. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than colonies in New England and the South. New Netherland was originally settled by Henry Hudson in 1609, chartered in 1614, and made a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624. The Middle Colonies accommodated a diverse mix of religions that included Quakers, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Amish, Congregationalists and Jews. The Duke of York never visited his colony, named New York in his honor, and exercised little direct control over it. Early European colonists in the Middle Colonies included Germans, Scotch-Irish, French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. American Indian tribes had long occupied the area that was conquered as the British Middle Colonies. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. The Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware were founded in the early to late 1600s depending on the colony. Licenses and Attributions CC licensed content, Shared previously Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania; however, this was still a relatively low number compared to other American colonies. To learn more about the history of this period, have a look at the following books: The Thirteen Colonies; The History of the Thirteen Colonies of North America 1497-1763; A … Most of the early settlers depended on the fur trade and on farming for economic survival. The middle colonies were originally settled by the Dutch, however the English saw the Dutch as a threat so they drove the Dutch out. Unlike Plymouth, Jamestown, and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. Delaware Colony became a region of the Province of Pennsylvania, although never legally a separate colony. From 1692 to 1694, the revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. American Indian tribes that had long occupied the area later to be conquered as the Middle Colonies included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, Munsee, and Minquas. Although enslaved, the Africans had a few basic rights and families were usually kept intact. The American Indian tribes in the area that would be taken by Europeans as New Netherland included Algonquian, Mohawks, Mahican, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, Tappan, and Minquas. The British captured New Amsterdam from the Dutch in 1664 and again in 1674, when they named it New York. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. The Duke of York and the King of England would later grant to others land which became the Provinces of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Another important person is captain Henry Hudson who discovered the Hudson river. If you would like to comment, contact us or like us on Facebook and tell us what you think. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, which made for a diverse (albeit largely Christian) populace. Towns in these colonies often had more than one kind of church. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery to New Netherland in 1625. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. 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