De Chair described this colorful and barbaric cavalcade: âWe were a motley crowd. The German man losses for the first week had been fairly limited. After 1938, the Austrian oil fields were available also, and the expansion of crude oil output was chiefly effected there. It could be used for lubricating oils needed by both the Wehrmacht and industry. An OKW study made aiquiting assessment (May 1941). It was needed in war time when cost was not very important. Not a single barrel of oil had been raised. As the War developed, the inability to import oil and other raw materials began to cause serious problems with both German industrial production and the food supply. When Barbarossa failed before Moscow (December 1941), Hitler designed the 1942 Summer offensive to seize the Soviet Caucasan oil fields. This 25 percent shortfall could only be supplied with Soviet oil deliveries. The Americans joined by the reconstituted French Army after the Bulge pressed forward to the Rhine. 4 (December 1984), pp. And German chemists and engineers set out developing chemical processes to convert the abundant coal resource into a liquid fuel. The Battle of Stalingrad was Hitler's desperate attempt to get to the oil-rich Baku. This exposed the the fuel and other supplies to inerdiction by the ROyal NAvy,. The Germans took elborate measures to camouflage the plants. Of course after launching a war, Germany woul require much greater fuel resources to support the mobile war operations contemplated by the rapidly expading Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe. The major formation was Field Marshal Model's Army Group B in the Ruhr. This was the last major German formation resisting the Western Allies. It is very clear in Mein Kampf, however, that Lebensraum and race were the primary factors. Eating & Drinking. By this time the Luftwaffe defenses had been largely depleted. Once at the front, the tanks were then converted to use synthetic fuel in combat where high performance and speed was needed. German secret agents, spies for the famed Abwehr of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, had carefully infiltrated Iraq, under the very noses of the British, fomenting discontent and building support for their candidate for power, Rashid Ali. This was a major problem addressed by German researcherts and they gradually mananaged to increase octane levels. Success in destroying the synthetic fuel plants would prove to be a critical factor in the Allies victory during the bitter-fought Battle of the Bulge (December 1944-January 1945). [Gallien, and Stutz, p. 503] Speer describes he process. With the signing of the Pact of Steel (May 1939), German diplomats began working to bring the countries in the region into the Axis Alliance. Fuel had been a problem for the Wehrmacht from the beginning of the War, but by December 1944 not only was Ploesti in ruins and occupied by the Red Army, but the Germany's synthetic fuel plants were now also largely destroyed thanks to the Allied strategic bombing campaign. May 1, 2020 - Explore loco castlebrimstone's board "ww2 german", followed by 237 people on Pinterest. [Contributions] Libyaan Italian colony. The Austrian Anscluss added more fields (1938). After another month of bombing he writes that he sent a memorandum to Hitler. And to do so with a fleet tht had been sharply reduced from the Grand Fleet of World War I. The German fields were primarily located in northwestern Germany. The groundwork for the plot had been very carefully laid. [Intelligence] [Diplomacy] He expeced them to back down as they had over Czechoslovakia. This changed with the NAZI seizure of power. The Germans had only begun this process when the Soviet launched Operation Uranus, surrounding the 6th Army in Stalingrad (November 1942). United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS). The tanks only moved slowly. If the oil fields could have been captured relatively intact (a big if, i know. While Germany did not have much oil, it did have coal and the the most advanced chemical industry in the world. Montgomery attacked the German-Italian army in North Africa with a massive bombardment followed by an armoured attack. The Bergius process was later enhanced by Matthias Pier. It was clear that something had to be done about Rashid Ali in Baghdad. Romania declared its neutrality at the outbreak of World War II. Ironically a rail transport of Soviettankers was crossing the border at the very moment that the Wehrmacht launched Barbarossa. And thee was the additional problem of bringing the refineries back on line. A factor here was that fuel shortages made it impossible for the Luftwaffe to adequately train new pilots. One of his generals had a plan to do just that. The P�litz plant was a primary target of the Allied Oil Campaign. This was just part of the vast quantity of critical materils the Soviets delivered to the Germans. [Return to Main war essay page], Strategic Bombing Campaign: The Oil Campaign, Main World War II strategic materials oil page, Main World War II strategic materials page. [Schroeder] The only major oil exporter not part of the Seven Sisters was the Soviet oil indutry. Thus maritime oil imports would be ended. The Germans resisted, but without mobility and over powered it was a fruitless effor as they fell back to the Rhine. His Majestyâs Life Guards and Royal Horse Guards jostled along in their army trucks beside the Bedouin of the Arab LegionâGlubbâs Desert Patrol, swathed in garish robes, who raced about in light trucks armed with Lewis guns,â like the commandos of David Stirlingâs Long Range Desert Group fighting against Rummel farther west. General Smart, then a colonel, came up â¦ Russia's Next Big Military Sale - To Mexico? The NAZIs had already begun to proceed with these objectives in Poland, but were to a degree put on hold so as not to disrupt the war effort. The problem continues to be the cost of the process. All told, the plan called for the use of 3.3 million German soldiers, as well as an additional 1 million from Axis nations such as Italy, Romania, and Hungary. This was a major achievement, but it was not the most importat domestic source. [Return to Main World War II strategic materials oil page] The Austrian Anscluss added more fields (1938). If the Schliffen Plan had suceeded, the blockade would have been of no importance. It is a major producer of bituminous coal and brown coal (lignite), the principal fields of the latter being west of Cologne, east of Halle, south and southwest of Leipzig, and in Lower Lusatia in Brandenburg. And with the destruction of the Luftwaffe, this was finally possible (January-March 1944). Second France fell to th Germans, providing first Atlantic ports (1940) and then Mediterraean ports (1942). There is no doubt that oil was an important inducement as was the grain of the Ukraine and other needed resources. For Rommel, the possibility of a pro-Axis ruler in oil-rich Iraq was a dream come true. Other minerals found in â¦ The German invasion of the USSR included the goal to capture the Baku oilfields. And the Rhine was the last natural barrier to the Allied advance. Somerset de Chair has left an ominous picture of what was going on inside neighboring Persia. The next step was going after the synthetic fuel plants. The Launching of âKingcolâ and the Legendary Glubb Pasha. After the war, Peake entered the service of Feisalâs brother Abdullah, who ruled as Emir, and later as King, of the Arab state of Transjordan, now part of the Kingdom of Jordan. The other prong headed east for Stalingrad. Domestic Oil Fields. Germany imported 85.2 million tonnes of crude oil (the country also imports additional mineral oil products). General Hasso von Manteuffel recommended to Hitler's Military Adjutant a halt to the offensive and a withdrawal back to the protection of the West Wall. [Technology] [Stranges] The other great powers had sources of oil. Synthetic rubber was important because Germanybhad no sources of natural rubber and because of the blockade could not import rubber, although a few Japanese shipments got through. German researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch afterWorld War I developed anotherv process of converting coal to oil (1923). P38 Holster. Faktor �l: die Mineral�lwirtschaft in Deutschland 1859-1974 (C.H. Possssion of the city on the Volga would prevent the Soviets from sending reinforcements into the Caucasuses to protect the oil fields. [Karlsch and Stokes, pp. A major problm was the relatively low octane of synthetic fuel. Gallien, Thomas and Reno Stutz, Geschichtswerkstatt Rostock, Landesheimatverband Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Landeskundlich-historisches Lexikon Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Hinstorff, 2007). 196.]. The Germans began overruning Soviet oil fields in the northern Caucauses (summer 1942), but were unable to bring them on line or hold them very long. P38 Magazine. I would think that Steel would be a pretty big one too - wooden planes just don't last as long, and pretty much everything ever made during WW2 had steel in it. Already a base was in readiness next door in Persia, where a sizable Germanâand pro-Naziâcolony already existed. Germany - Germany - Resources and power: Germany, which has relatively few domestic natural resources, imports most of its raw materials. The Germans found small fields in the northwest, especially at Reitbrook and Heide-Meldorf. The United Srates was the major oil producer and exporter at the time and much of the production was by companies that had been created by the break up of John D. Rockefellers Standard Oil monopoly. The initial raids were infefectual nd their were heavy losses. The Soviets delivered 4 million barrels of oil in 1940 and 1.6 million barrels during the first half of 1941. Hitler recognized the importance of oil and ordered and the danger of relying on imported sources. The British, however, were not vey sensible, understading just what surrendering to Hitler meant. 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